The systematics of tribe Schistopterini (Diptera: Tephritidae) is reviewed and discussed, and a key is given to the fourteen current genera, of which four are new. A cladogram of the type species of the genera plus all other species of one of the new genera (Microtreta) is presented, supporting the monophyly of Microtreta. The new genera include Calloptera (type species Rhabdochaeta asteria Hendel), Microtreta (type species Microtreta fini, sp.n.), Melanopterella (type species Rhabdochaeta nigra Bezzi) and Schistotephritis (type species Camaromyia acrophthalma Bezzi). Microtreta is treated comprehensively; its constituents, deemingi, fini, frontale, jeffreyi and longicornis (all new species), are described from East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Host plants, all of genus Vernonia (Asteraceae), are recorded for the four East African species. Characters of immature stages are described for M. longicornis. Eighteen new combinations are made.