Systematic review with meta-analysis: environmental and dietary differences of inflammatory bowel disease in Eastern and Western populations

Min Zhao, Rui Feng, Shomron Ben-Horin, Xiaojun Zhuang, Zhenyi Tian, Xiaozhi Li, Ruiqi Ma, Ren Mao, Yun Qiu*, Minhu Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: While the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has stabilised in the West, it is still increasing in several newly industrialised countries. Aims: To investigate whether the environmental and dietary risk factors for IBD differ between Eastern and Western populations. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published from inception through June 30, 2020. Data were pooled using a random effects model. Results: Overall, 255 studies were assessed. We identified 25 risk factors for IBD, seven of which were noted in both Eastern and Western populations: family history of Crohn's disease [CD] or ulcerative colitis [UC], former smoking (CD/UC), smoking (CD), appendicectomy (CD), tonsillectomy (CD), meat and meat products (CD), and vitamin D deficiency (UC). The remaining factors, including urban living, current smoking, antibiotics, oral contraceptives, caesarean section, isotretinoin, total energy, fat, cholesterol, fatty acids and their sub-classifications, eggs, and soft drinks, were associated with an increased risk of IBD in Western or Eastern populations only. We identified 21 protective factors for IBD, among which eight were common in the East and West: farm animals (CD/UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (CD/UC), multiple births (CD), physical activity (CD), history of breastfeeding (CD), pets (UC), current smoking (UC), and coffee intake (UC). Ten factors conferred protection against IBD in Western populations only, whereas eight factors conferred protection against IBD in Eastern populations only. Conclusions: Numerous environmental and dietary factors influenced the development of IBD in both Western and Eastern populations, whereas certain factors influenced IBD risk differently in these populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-276
Number of pages11
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume55
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Funding

FundersFunder number
Young Teacher Development Program of Sun Yat-sen University
Young Teacher Development Program of Sun Yat‐sen University19ykpy77
Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust2019PG‐CD018
National Natural Science Foundation of China81630018, 81870384

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