Primary synovial chondromatosis (PSC) is a rare disorder of the synovium typified by cartilaginous nodule formation within the synovial membrane. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a recently described specific marker of mesenchymal precartilaginous stem cells. Expression patterns of FGFR3 and its specific ligand, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF 9), were evaluated both in situ and in cell cultures. Histologically, cells at the periphery of the cartilage nodules express FGFR3 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen). Elevated levels of FGF 9, its specific ligand, have been found in synovial fluids of patients with synovial chondromatosis. Synoviocytes but not chondrocytes from affected patients express FGF9 in culture. This pattern is absent in normal synovium and cartilage. Downregulation of FGF9 may provide a possible nonoperative therapy for PSC.
- Fibroblast growth factor 9
- Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
- Mesenchymal cells
- Synovial chondromatosis