This paper describes our initial clinical findings in a small group of patients with acute oliguric renal failure, who were resistant to extracellular volume expansion and furosemide in large doses. Based on our experience in an experimental model of acute renal failure in the dog, we administered a combination of low-dose dopamine (1-3 μg/kg/min i.v.) and furosemide (100-200 mg every 6-8 h). This combination was uniformly effective in inducing a brisk, lasting diuresis and was associated with either stable or reduced serum creatinine levels in two-thirds of the patients. No toxicity was found. These findings would warrant extensive study of this drug combination in a larger, well-controlled, randomized group with oliguric renal failure.