Syncytial architecture is an evolutionarily-conserved feature of the germline of many species and plays a crucial role in their fertility. However, the mechanism supporting syncytial organization is largely unknown. Here, we identify a corset-like actomyosin structure within the syncytial germline of Caenorhabditis elegans, surrounding the common rachis. Using laser microsurgery, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility within this structure generates tension both in the plane of the rachis surface and perpendicular to it, opposing membrane tension. Genetic and pharmacological perturbations, as well as mathematical modeling, reveal a balance of forces within the gonad and show how changing the tension within the actomyosin corset impinges on syncytial germline structure, leading, in extreme cases, to sterility. Thus, our work highlights a unique tissue-level cytoskeletal structure, and explains the critical role of actomyosin contractility in the preservation of a functional germline.