Synchrony effects on customers' responses and behaviors

Jacob Hornik, Giulia Miniero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Past research demonstrates that most people have a certain time of day when they are most alert and able to perform at their best. The authors investigate the effect of consumers' "morningness"-"eveningness" orientation and time of day on their performance. Two experiments explore whether synchrony between peak circadian periods and time of testing influences consumers' performance. Results suggest robust synchrony and time-of-day effects on the dependent variables. Study 1 shows that circadian rhythm strongly influences customers' waiting time and service evaluations. The use of signal-detection methods in Study 2 reveals that participants were better able to recall and recognize ads when tests were performed during their peak circadian time. Overall, subjects showed better performance at their peak than at their off-peak time of day. The authors discuss the theoretical significance of their findings and the managerial implications for marketing research and practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-40
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Research in Marketing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2009


  • Chronotypes
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Synchrony effect
  • Time of day


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