Synchronverters with Better Stability Due to Virtual Inductors, Virtual Capacitors, and Anti-Windup

Vivek Natarajan, George Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Synchronverters are inverters that mimic the behavior of synchronous generators. In this paper, we propose five modifications to the synchronverter algorithm from the paper 'Synchronverters: Inverters that mimic synchronous generators,' (IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1259-1267, Apr. 2011), to improve its stability and performance. These modifications are implemented in software and do not require any changes in the inverter hardware. The first two modifications concern the control of the virtual field current in the synchronverter so that it is more robust to faults. We prove the stability of the grid-connected synchronverter with this improved field current controller. The third modification is to increase the effective size of the filter inductors virtually. This is motivated using results from the stability analysis of a constant field current synchronous generator connected to an ac power grid and also by practical considerations. Simulations and experiments show that this leads to a much better response to changes in grid frequency, voltage, or to imbalance in the grid. The fourth modification is to change the formula for the (virtual) nominal active mechanical torque to take into account the (virtual) losses in the output impedance of the converter. This makes the tracking of the desired active power much more accurate. The fifth modification is to introduce virtual capacitors in series with the inverter outputs to filter spurious dc components from the current supplied to the grid.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7864422
Pages (from-to)5994-6004
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2017


  • Anti-windup
  • field current controller
  • grid imbalance
  • inverters
  • robust performance
  • stability analysis
  • synchronverter
  • virtual capacitor
  • virtual inductor


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