Symptoms and Glycemic Control in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An Observational Study

Revital Nimri*, Marianna Rachmiel, Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Avivit Brener, Liat De Vries, Naama Fisch Shvalb, Liora Lazar, Asaf Oren, Talia Jacobi-Polishook, Noa Shefer Averbuch, Ariel Tenenbaum, Eran Mel, Sari Krepel Volsky, Marie Mouler, Sharon Demol, Shlomit Shalitin, Rachel Bello, Moshe Phillip, Yael Lebenthal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: Data is needed regarding the effect of SARS-CoV-19 infection on young people with established type 1 diabetes. Identifying the disease outcomes, short and long-term sequelae may help to establish an evidence-based prevention and education policy for sick days management and DKA prevention. Objective: This work aims to describe clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, adolescents, and young adults with established type 1 diabetes (T1D) and explore the effects of COVID-19 on glycemic control and disease course. Methods: An observational study was conducted at 3 pediatric diabetes clinics in Israel between mid-March 2020 and mid-March 2021. Included were young people with established T1D, age younger than 30 years, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction). Data were collected from medical files, diabetes devices, and COVID-19 questionnaire. Outcome measures were analyzed by the presence/absence of clinical symptoms (symptomatic/asymptomatic) and by age group (pediatric, < 19 years/young adults, 19-30 years). Results: Of 132 patients, mean age 16.9 ± 5.3years, with COVID-19-confirmed infection, 103 (78%) had related symptoms; the most common were headaches, fatigue, fever, and loss of sense of smell. All had a mild disease course, but 4 required hospitalization and 2 cases were directly related to COVID-19 infection (pleuropneumonia in a patient with immunodeficiency syndrome, 1 case of diabetic ketoacidosis). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23; P = .033), elevated glucose levels (OR = 5.23; 95% CI, 1.12-24.41; P = .035), and comorbidities (OR = 8.21; 95% CI, 1.00-67.51; P = .050) were positively associated with symptomatic infection. Persistent symptoms occurred in 16.5% of the cohort over a median of 6.7 months; age (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29; P = .030) and elevated glucose levels (OR = 3.42; 95% CI, 1.12-10.40; P = .031) were positively associated with persistent symptoms. Usually, no change was reported in glucose levels (64%) except for a temporary deterioration in glycemic control during the short infection period. Conclusion: Young people with established T1D experience mild COVID-19 infection. Elevated glucose levels during COVID-19 infection and older age were associated with prolonged disease course.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E3264-E3272
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • COVID-19
  • DKA
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • asymptomatic infection
  • pediatric
  • type 1 diabetes


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