Objective or Purpose: Macular edema (ME) is secondary to various disease processes. It is most commonly seen following venous occlusive disease, diabetic retinopathy, posterior segment inflammatory disease, and vitreomacular traction syndromes. Treatment varies, depending upon the underlying etiology, and has led to varying degrees of success. Advances in vitreoretinal surgical techniques over the years have expanded the list of indications for vitreoretinal surgical treatment. The purpose of this review is to outline the current use of vitreoretinal surgery and highlight the ever-growing indications for surgery in macular edema. Design: This is a comprehensive review, using Medline, of all literature published on vitreoretinal surgery for macular edema secondary to various conditions. Results: Over 450 abstracts were reviewed, and the articles pertinent to our discussion were selected. The search words were "macular edema" and "pars plana vitrectomy" or "surgery." Conclusions: The pathology of the vitreous body is associated with ME in several different conditions, and vitreoretinal surgical techniques can be effective in the management of ME in the majority of them. The ever-expanding new surgical techniques, as well as the new pharmacologic agents used during surgery, show great promise for the future.
- Macular edema
- Pars plana viterectomy