In 1888, Kronlein introduced the concept of lateral orbital rim removal to access deep orbital lesions. While this approach is still employed to this day, today's aesthetically oriented orbital surgeon has a myriad of new minimally invasive techniques in their armamentarium. Orbital imaging continues to improve with more sensitive and higher resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning technologies. Multidisciplinary collaborations have facilitated newer surgical approaches through the sinuses and transcranial routes. Technological advancements in the instrumentation of today's orbital surgeon have also improved in the 15 years since the last edition of this chapter. Finally, advances in anesthesia techniques have allowed more cases to be performed in an outpatient setting with less sedation.
|Title of host publication||Smith and Nesi's Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Third Edition|
|Publisher||Springer New York|
|Number of pages||13|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2012|