Background: To assess whether expectant observation of infants ≤ 90 days old with small suprarenal masses (sSRMs) could avoid unnecessary surgery without impacting outcome. Methods: Infants ≤ 90 days with a ≤ 5 cm mass, without midline extension or lymph node or distant spread were registered (ClinicalTrials.org:NCT01728155). Once staging was completed, they were followed with ultrasound, MRI and urinary catecholamines. Surgical resection was only planned if there was a ≥40% mass volume increase or for a mass persisting after 48 weeks of the planned observation. Results: Over a 5-year period, 128 infants were registered. No infant had detectable MYCN amplification in the peripheral blood. Surgery was performed in 39 (30.5%) patients, in 18 during and in 21 after the planned 48-week observation, and 74% were confirmed to be neuroblastomas. Non-life-threatening surgical complications occurred in two cases. The 3-year overall survival and event-free survival were 100% and 87.1%, respectively. The 16 events observed were volume increase (N = 11) and progression to neuroblastoma stage MS (N = 5). Patients with solid masses or MIBG-positive masses had lower EFS. Conclusions: Expectant observation for infants with sSRMs with clinical follow-up and timely imaging (including MRI scan) is safe and effective, allowing surgery to be avoided in the majority of them.
- suprarenal masses