In this study we determined the influence of cholinergic up-regulation by rivastigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on central nervous system inflammation. Neuroinflammation was induced in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Rivastigmine markedly ameliorated clinical symptoms of EAE and the spatial memory deficits induced by EAE. It also reduced demyelination, microglia activation and axonal damage. Rivastigmine decreased the reactivity of encephalitogenic T-cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17) without affecting IL-10 production. These effects were abolished by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists. Antigen presentation was also affected by this treatment. Thus, rivastigmine treatment had immunomodulatory activity in EAE.
- Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
- Cognitive dysfunction
- Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
- Multiple sclerosis
- α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor