Spontaneous recurrent abortion (SRA) has been treated by means of immunization with paternal or third-party white blood cells, yet the immunological basis for SRA and for the role of immunization protocols in pregnancy outcome remains controversial. To elucidate this question, nine women with SRA were immunized with paternal mononuclear cells and studied before and 2 weeks after immunization. Seven women who became pregnant gave birth to live newborns. Secretion of the T helper 1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon-γ by patients' mononuclear cells decreased, while production of IL-10 increased. The levels of natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity were markedly decreased, Monocyte functions such as secretion of IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor α. IL-6, and cytotoxic activity decreased concurrently with elevations in IL-10 and transforming growth factor β secretion. Production of IL-12, a pivotal regulatory cytokine, decreased. Furthermore. B7/1 expression on patients' mononuclear cells was downregulated. This resulted in a decrease in monocyte costimulatory activity of purified T cells with soluble anti-CD3, paralleled by a decline in allogeneic proliferative responses. These results suggest that the improved pregnancy success rate in women with SRA following immunization may be partly related to suppression of cell- mediated immunity and monocyte and natural killer cell activity.
- Natural killer
- Spontaneous recurrent abortion