Objective: To assess the therapeutic contribution of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in four acutely ill, hypercatabolic, hemodialysed patients. All underwent major surgery, complicated by infection and malnutrition. Design: A retrospective clinical study. Setting: An in-center hemodialysis unit, at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients: Patient 1: a young woman, with a good renal transplant. Developed gastric lymphoma, which required gastrectomy. After cessation of immunosuppression, “lost” her kidney and returned to hemodialysis. Received IDPN for 4 months and recovered well from severe malnourishment. Patient 2: an elderly, malnourished man, on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Developed biliary peritonitis and bacteremia. In a 3-month period, the patient had four operations. Maintained on IDPN for 4 months. Patient 3: a young and obese man, who suffered from life-threatening staphylococcal aureus peritonitis, resulting in widespread bowel adhesions. Underwent repeated aspirations of purulent ascites, laparoscopy, and explorative laparotomy. IDPN was administered for 4 months and stopped on the patient's request. Patient 4: a young man, who after cadaveric renal transplantation remained hospitalized for 6 months because of acute rejection and peritoneal and retroperitoneal abscesses. Had major surgery performed seven times. Received IDPN for 6 months, and is now well. Results: All four patients benefited from 4 to 6 months of IDPN, as an integral part of intensive supportive and nutritional treatment. Weight loss was halted, as patient appetite returned and oral nutrition became adequate. Estimated daily protein intake reached 1.2 g/kg, while caloric intake rose to nearly 30 kcal/kg/d (Table 3). Mean serum albumin levels increased from 25.5 g/L ± 0.9 g/L to 38.0 g/L ± 1.5 g/L. No adverse side effects were seen from IDPN. Conclusion: IDPN is a worthwhile part of treatments used in the catabolic, postoperative hemodialysed patient. It is safe and efficient when used over a 6-month period in trying to attenuate existing, or worsening malnutrition in these patients. It should be commenced at an early stage in these patients, after attempts at oral nutritional support have been deemed inadequate.