Tendons are composed of a parallel arrangement of densely packed collagen fibrils that results in unique biomechanical properties of strength and flexibility. In the present review we discuss several advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) techniques that have allowed us to better understand the biophysical properties of tendons and ligaments. The methods include multiple quantum and T2 filtering combined with NMR and MRI techniques. It is shown in detail how these techniques can be used to extract a number of useful parameters: 1) the 1H-1H and 1H-2H dipolar interactions; 2) the proton exchange rates between water and collagen, and between water molecules; 3) the distribution of fibril orientations; and 4) the anisotropy of diffusion. It is shown that relaxation data as a function of angular dependence can be obtained in vivo using mobile NMR sensors. Finally, this article describes how double quantum filtered (DQF) MRI can be used to image and monitor the healing process in injured tendons.
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging|
|State||Published - Feb 2007|
- DQF MRI
- DQF NMR