We identify all possible classes of solutions for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) within the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation and check these results against numerical simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs). We find that they can be divided into two general categories. The first class contains solutions with a region of overlap between the components. The other class consists of non-overlapping wavefunctions and also contains solutions that do not possess the symmetry of the trap. The chemical potential and average energy can be found for both classes within the TF approximation by solving a set of coupled algebraic equations representing the normalization conditions for each component. A ground state minimizing the energy (within both classes of states) is found for a given set of parameters characterizing the scattering length and confining potential. In the TF approximation, the ground state always shares the symmetry of the trap. However, a full numerical solution of the coupled GPEs, incorporating the kinetic energy of the BEC atoms, can sometimes select a broken-symmetry state as the ground state of the system. We also investigate effects of finite-range interactions on the structure of the ground state.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
|Published - 14 Oct 2000