Strontium doped hydroxyapatite from Mercenaria clam shells: Synthesis, mechanical and bioactivity study

Anindya Pal, Purnendu Nasker, Sudeep Paul, Amit Roy Chowdhury, Arijit Sinha*, Mitun Das

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Synthesis of strontium-doped hydroxyapatite from Mercenaria clam shells has been carried out by hydrothermal method. The doping of bioceramic, processed from biogenic resources is mostly unexplored. The objective is to understand the effect of strontium (Sr) incorporation on phase stability, sintering behaviour, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of hydroxyapatite (HAp) derived from clam shells. The different molar concentrations of Sr, varies from 10, 30, 50, 70% of Ca, were substituted into the HAp. The synthesized powders were sintered at 1200 °C in air. The as synthesized powders and sintered specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The crystallite size and cell parameters of sintered specimens were analyzed from XRD. The XRD of hydrothermally synthesized powders mostly matched with HAp with slight shifting due to Sr doping. However, some distinct Sr based compounds were also observed where Sr substitution is more that 50% of Ca. The XRD of sintered specimen showed increasing β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) phase with Sr substitution. The sintered density of solid samples gradually increased from 3.04 g/cc to 3.50 g/cc and surface energy decreased with increasing Sr substitution. Similarly, microhardness, fracture toughness and nanohardness of solid samples found to be enhanced with Sr substitution. The elastic modulus gradually increased from 130 to 137 GPa for HAp and Sr substituted HAp (70% of Ca). The in vitro cytotoxicity of sintered specimen against mouse osteoblast cell line showed that all the samples were nontoxic. However cell proliferation found low for the solid samples containing more than 50% Sr substitution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-336
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Biocompatibility
  • Clam shell
  • Hydrothermal
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Nanoindentation
  • Strontium


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