Follow-up long-term stress effects to bombardment by scud missiles were restudied 1 year following the Persian Gulf war in a group of 326 6th, 8th, and 11th grade children from areas hit and not hit by the missiles. Postwar stress reactions were assessed by a continuous global symptom score (Frederick and Pynoos, 1988) and by a dichotomous PTSD index. Overall, a large drop in stress reactions was obtained with lapse of time. Residual long-term stress reactions were found to be associated with higher immediate (4-week) stress reactions, a greater degree of exposure, and younger age. Results were discussed in relation to residual and evaporation of stress reaction effects as well as in terms of childhood resilience.
- long-term effects
- post-traumatic reactions