The diagnosis of stress fractures is based on clinical assessment and on imaging modalities. Simple radiography (X-rays), scintigraphy (bone scan), and computerized tomography (CT) are widely used, though today magnetic resonance (MRI) is accepted as the more safe and accurate diagnostic tool. Differential diagnosis may include a variety of pathologic conditions, as tumors, infections, metabolic diseases, or normal growth variations. Treatment is essentially conservative and may include relative rest, various modalities as external support, shock waves (SW), low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU), and occasionally surgical intervention.
|Title of host publication||Sports Injuries|
|Subtitle of host publication||Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Rehabilitation, Second Edition|
|Publisher||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Number of pages||12|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2015|