Information regarding the stresses and strains in the canine femur during various activities is important for veterinary orthopaedic surgeons, engineers designing implants for dogs, and researchers of human orthopaedics who use dogs as models. Nevertheless, such information is currently unavailable. The objective of this study is to determine the stress and strain distribution in the canine femur during mid-stance, for two loading scenarios. Three-dimensional finite element models of the canine femur were created. Two loading cases were considered: the hip joint reaction force alone, and the hip joint reaction force with all muscle forces acting on the femur. Force directions and magnitudes were obtained from the literature. Analyses were performed with NASTRAN for Windows® software. When all muscle forces were considered, stresses and strains were significantly reduced, peak compressive stresses were found to occur in the medial diaphysis, and peak tensile stresses occurred in the lateral diaphysis. While the canine femur seems to be loaded primarily in bending when only the hip joint reaction force is considered, the bending moment is significantly decreased when all muscle forces are considered as well. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments are needed to validate the results of the calculations described in this paper. It is expected that future studies will be carried out, in which the stress and strain distributions in femora with different types of implants and stems will be compared to those in the normal femur.
- Finite element