Stratified laminar countercurrent flow of two liquid phases in inclined tubes

A. Ullmann, M. Zamir, Z. Ludmer, N. Brauner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The effects of inclination on the characteristics of laminar countercurrent liquid-liquid flow are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Experimental results show that with a slight off-vertical inclination the phases tend to segregate and the basic flow pattern in inclined tubes is stratified flow. Moreover, for fixed operational conditions, there exist two stable modes of stratified configuration that differ in the in situ holdup, velocity profiles and the pressure drop, and both may co-exist in the column. The application of the two-fluid and the two-plate models for the prediction of the characteristics of countercurrent flow is explored. Both models predict the existence of the two modes that have been observed in the column and their associated holdups. The TP model confirms the experimental finding that back flow (opposite to the feed direction) is an inherent characteristic of countercurrent flow and generally, is expected in the thicker layer. The findings of this study are applicable for improving the throughput of phase transition extraction columns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1583-1604
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Multiphase Flow
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2003


  • Countercurrent
  • Holdup
  • Inclined
  • Liquid-liquid
  • Oil-water
  • Stratified


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