Strategies for constructing melt-castable energetic materials: A critical review

Qing Ma, Zhenqi Zhang, Wei Yang, Wei Li*, Jia Ju*, Guijuan Fan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Melt-castable energetic materials are utilized in a wide variety of civilian and military applications, such as construction, demolition, underwater blasting, mining, oil well perforation, and military munitions. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a traditionally-applied melt-castable explosive; however, its low physical-performance output, environmental pollution characteristics, and safety issues restrict its further development towards future industrial applications. This review addresses advances in the design, synthesis, and characterization of new melt-castable energetic materials featuring fluorine, gem-dinitrofluoroethyl, and nitrate ester groups as well as the nitrofurazan and 1,2,4-oxadizaole skeletons, which have led to the development of novel high-performance TNT candidates between 2012 and 2020.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-85
Number of pages17
JournalEnergetic Materials Frontiers
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Fluorine
  • Furazan skeleton
  • Gem-dinitrofluroethyl
  • High performance
  • Low melting point
  • Melt-castable energetic material
  • Oxadiazole skeleton


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