Strain distribution in root surface dentin of maxillary central incisors during lateral compaction

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Aim: To precisely quantify the circumferential strains created along the radicular dentin of maxillary incisors during a simulated clinical procedure of lateral compaction. Methods: Six miniature strain gauges were bonded on the roots of fourteen recently extracted maxillary central incisors that were subjected to root canal instrumentation. The strain gauges were bonded at three levels (apical, middle, and coronal) and four aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) of the roots. Each tooth was embedded in a PVC cylinder containing polyvinyl-siloxane impression material. Root filling was then performed by simulating the clinical procedure of lateral compaction using nickel-titanium finger spreaders. The force applied to the spreader and the strains developing in the surface root dentin were continuously recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz. Results: The highest strains that developed during lateral compaction were in the mesial and distal aspects at the apical level of the root. The magnitudes of the maximal mesial/distal strains at the apical as well as the mid-root levels were approximately 2.5-3 times higher than those at the buccal/lingual aspects (p = 0.041). The strains decreased significantly (p<0.04) from the apical through the mid-root levels to the coronal level, yielding gradients of 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively. The mesial and distal strains were consistently tensile and did not differ significantly; however, the buccal strains were generally 35-65% higher than the lingual strains (p = 0.078). Lateral compaction resulted in the gradual build-up of residual strains, resulting in generation of a 'stair-step' curve. These strains declined gradually and almost completely disappeared after 1000 sec. Conclusions: With proper mounting of several miniature strain gauges at various levels and aspects of the root, significant circumferential strains can be monitored under clinically relevant compaction forces. The residual strains at the end of lateral compaction are not stored in the dentin but decrease gradually to negligible levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0156461
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2016


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