Stokes-Space Analysis of Modal Dispersion of SDM Fibers with Mode-Dependent Loss: Theory and Experiments

Cristian Antonelli*, Antonio Mecozzi, Mark Shtaif, Nicolas Keith Fontaine, Haoshuo Chen, Roland Ryf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Signal propagation in Space-Division Multiplexed (SDM) systems in the linear regime is dominated by the effects of modal dispersion (MD) and mode-dependent loss (MDL). While multiple models have been proposed for characterizing these phenomena separately or to study the effect of MD on MDL, the effect of MDL on the system MD has never been analyzed. In this article, we report such an analysis, where the inclusion of MDL is accounted for by introducing a complex MD vector $\vec{\tau }$. We show that the signal delay spread, quantified by the duration of the intensity impulse response function, is not affected by the presence of MDL, and its functional dependence on $\vec{\tau }$ remains the same as in the absence of MDL (in which case $\vec{\tau }$ is a real-valued vector). The model, which represents SDM systems operating in the regime of strong coupling between modes, is validated by comparison with experimental data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8932545
Pages (from-to)1668-1677
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


FundersFunder number
Italian Government
Israel Science Foundation1401/16


    • Modal dispersion
    • mode-dependent loss
    • optical fiber communications
    • space-division multiplexing


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