Background: While deep brain stimulation has been successful in treating movement disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease, its potential application in alleviating memory disorders is inconclusive. Objective/Hypothesis: We investigated the role of the location of the stimulating electrode on memory improvement and hypothesized that entorhinal white versus gray matter stimulation would have differential effects on memory. Methods: Intracranial electrical stimulation was applied to the entorhinal area of twenty-two participants with already implanted electrodes as they completed visual memory tasks. Results: We found that stimulation of right entorhinal white matter during learning had a beneficial effect on subsequent memory, while stimulation of adjacent gray matter or left-sided stimulation was ineffective. This finding was consistent across three different visually guided memory tasks. Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of precise stimulation site on modulation of human hippocampal-dependent memory and suggest that stimulation of afferent input into the right hippocampus may be an especially promising target for enhancement of visual memory.
- Declarative memory
- Deep brain stimulation
- Entorhinal cortex
- Intracranial electrical stimulation
- White matter