We have found in previous studies in vitro using skeletal derived cell cultures, that mid-region fragments of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and increase the specific activity of the brain-type isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK). These changes occurred without an increase in cyclic AMP formation which is linked to bone resorption. In this study, we found that the mid-region fragment hPTH-(28-48) stimulated CK activity in diaphysis, epiphysis and kidney in a time- and dose-dependent manner, parallel to the effects of the whole molecule bovine (b) PTH-(1-84) and the fully active fragment hPTH-(1-34). The increase caused by hPTH-(28-48) at a dose of 1.25 μg/rat was not less than the 2-fold increase caused by a roughly equimolar concentration of bPTH-(1-84). A significant increase was reached at 1 h after intraperitoneal injection in all cases. All three sequences of PTH caused an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in diaphysis and epiphysis, but not in kidney, 24 h after injection. A fragment further towards the C-terminal, hPTH-(34-47), was inactive compared with an equimolar concentration of the fragment hPTH-(25-39), which stimulated both CK activity and DNA synthesis. These results in vivo are in line with previous findings in vitro; they provide further support for the suggestion that mid-region fragments of the PTH molecule could be used to induce bone formation without incurring the deleterious effect of bone resorption.