Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear-Schrödinger equations with a sinusoidal potential is commonly used to describe nonlinear periodic media, such as photonic lattices in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded into optical lattices (OLs). Previous studies have shown that the 2D version of this equation, with the self-focusing (SF) nonlinearity, supports stable solitons in the semi-infinite gap. It is known, too, that under both the self-defocusing (SDF) and SF nonlinearities, several families of gap solitons (GSs) exist in finite bandgaps. Here, we investigate the stability of 2D dipole-mode GS families, via the computation of their linear-stability eigenvalues and direct simulations of the perturbed evolution. We demonstrate that, under the SF nonlinearity, one species of dipole GSs is stable in a part of the first finite bandgap, provided that the OL depth exceeds a threshold value, while other dipole and multipole modes are unstable in that case. Bidipole bound states (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal), as well as square- and rhombic-shaped vortices and quadrupoles, built of stable fundamental dipoles, are stable too. Under the SDF nonlinearity, the family of dipole solitons is shown to be stable in a part of the second finite bandgap. Transformations of unstable dipole GSs are studied by means of direct simulations. Direct simulations are also performed to investigate the stability of other GS families, in the first and second bandgaps, under both types of the nonlinearity. In particular, "tripole" solitons, sustained in the second bandgap under the action of the SF nonlinearity, demonstrate stable behavior in the course of long propagation, in a certain region within the bandgap.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|State||Published - 24 Jun 2013|