SRSF1 haploinsufficiency is responsible for a syndromic developmental disorder associated with intellectual disability

Elke Bogaert, Aurore Garde, Thierry Gautier, Kathleen Rooney, Yannis Duffourd, Pontus LeBlanc, Emma van Reempts, Frederic Tran Mau-Them, Ingrid M. Wentzensen, Kit Sing Au, Kate Richardson, Hope Northrup, Vincent Gatinois, David Geneviève, Raymond J. Louie, Michael J. Lyons, Lone Walentin Laulund, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Trine Maxel Juul, Fatima El ItNathalie Marle, Patrick Callier, Raissa Relator, Sadegheh Haghshenas, Haley McConkey, Jennifer Kerkhof, Claudia Cesario, Antonio Novelli, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Michele Pinelli, Perrine Pennamen, Sophie Naudion, Marine Legendre, Cécile Courdier, Aurelien Trimouille, Martine Doco Fenzy, Lynn Pais, Alison Yeung, Kimberly Nugent, Elizabeth R. Roeder, Tadahiro Mitani, Jennifer E. Posey, Daniel Calame, Hagith Yonath, Jill A. Rosenfeld, Luciana Musante, Flavio Faletra, Francesca Montanari, Giovanna Sartor, Alessandra Vancini, Marco Seri, Claude Besmond, Karine Poirier, Laurence Hubert, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Arnold Munnich, James R. Lupski, Christophe Philippe, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Laurence Faivre, Bekim Sadikovic, Jérôme Govin, Bart Dermaut*, Antonio Vitobello*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


SRSF1 (also known as ASF/SF2) is a non-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (non-snRNP) that belongs to the arginine/serine (R/S) domain family. It recognizes and binds to mRNA, regulating both constitutive and alternative splicing. The complete loss of this proto-oncogene in mice is embryonically lethal. Through international data sharing, we identified 17 individuals (10 females and 7 males) with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with heterozygous germline SRSF1 variants, mostly de novo, including three frameshift variants, three nonsense variants, seven missense variants, and two microdeletions within region 17q22 encompassing SRSF1. Only in one family, the de novo origin could not be established. All individuals featured a recurrent phenotype including developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD/ID), hypotonia, neurobehavioral problems, with variable skeletal (66.7%) and cardiac (46%) anomalies. To investigate the functional consequences of SRSF1 variants, we performed in silico structural modeling, developed an in vivo splicing assay in Drosophila, and carried out episignature analysis in blood-derived DNA from affected individuals. We found that all loss-of-function and 5 out of 7 missense variants were pathogenic, leading to a loss of SRSF1 splicing activity in Drosophila, correlating with a detectable and specific DNA methylation episignature. In addition, our orthogonal in silico, in vivo, and epigenetics analyses enabled the separation of clearly pathogenic missense variants from those with uncertain significance. Overall, these results indicated that haploinsufficiency of SRSF1 is responsible for a syndromic NDD with ID due to a partial loss of SRSF1-mediated splicing activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)790-808
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 4 May 2023


  • Drosophila
  • SRSF1
  • epigenetic signature
  • haploinsufficiency
  • neurodevelopmental disorder
  • splicing


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