Twenty-five women scheduled for hysterectomy for nonmalignant disease participated in the study. Sperm storage in endocervical crypts was examined in three groups of patients: nine women pretreated with estrogen and inseminated with normal semen, nine women pretreated with gestagen and inseminated with normal semen, and seven women pretreated with estrogen and inseminated with abnormal semen. The number of crypts containing spermatozoa (colonized crypts) and the sperm density per crypt were examined in serially sectioned cervices. In estrogen-pretreated cervices both the percentage of colonized crypts and the sperm density were significantly higher than in gestagen-pretreated cervices. Large and giant crypts proved to be the main storage facility for spermatozoa. The localization of crypts along the endocervical canal did not influence sperm storage. The percentage of colonized crypts and sperm density were severely reduced in patients inseminated with abnormal semen.