Pronounced spatial non-uniformity has been obtained of daytime sea surface temperature (SST) of the Dead Sea and of land surface temperature (LST) over areas adjacent to the Dead Sea. This non-uniformity was observed in the summer months, under uniform solar radiation. Our findings are based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (2002-2016) on board the Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS data showed that, on average for the 15-year study period, daytime SST over the eastern part of the lake (Te) exceeded by 5 °C that over the western part (Tw). This SST non-uniformity (observed in the absence of surface heat flow from land to sea at the eastern side) was accompanied by spatial non-uniform distribution of land surface temperature (LST) over areas adjacent to the Dead Sea. Specifically, LST over areas adjacent to the eastern side exceeded by 10 °C that over areas adjacent to the western side. Our findings of spatial non-uniformity of SST/LST based on MODIS data were supported by Meteosat Second Generation LST records. Regional atmospheric warming led to a decrease in spatial non-uniformity of SST during the study period. Temperature difference between Te and Tw steadily decreased at the rate of 0.32 °C decade??1, based on MODIS/Terra data, and 0.54 °C decade??1, based on MODIS/Aqua data. Our simulations of monthly skin temperature distribution over the Dead Sea by theWeather Forecast and Research (WRF) model contradict satellite observations. The application to modeling of the observed SST/LST spatial non-uniformity will advance our knowledge of atmospheric dynamics over hypersaline lakes.
- Dead sea
- Hypersaline lake surface temperature
- Saline lakes
- Sea surface temperature
- WRF skin temperature