A significant urban heat island (UHI) was identified in Tel-Aviv on a stable winter day. The UHI detection was performed using air temperatures at both the roof and the street levels (using fixed-station and car-traverse measurements) and at the surface level (using an airborne thermal video radiometer [TVR]). Whereas the complex microscale characteristics of the UHI studied by the TVR at the surface level showed variations of up to 10°C, at the street level, air temperature variations of 3-5°C were identified between the city center and the surrounding areas. It was found that during the nighttime, the warm Mediterranean Sea has a moderating effect on the roof-level temperatures, whereas, at the street level, the urban heat island is more pronounced. The combined method of monitoring the UHI from different levels and on different scales for the first time enabled a spatial assessment of the city's UHI and its diverse thermal coverage characteristics. The thermal differences of neighborhoods, urban activity and urban components were compared. It was demonstrated that the city cover plays an important role in the thermal activity of Tel-Aviv. A similar UHI spatial pattern was obtained using isotherm maps, generated from the air temperatures at street level, and thermal images, generated by the TVR at the surface level. It was concluded that there are differences in the magnitude of the UHI at different levels of the canopy layer and at different times, but the UHI pattern has similar trends. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Coastal city
- Thermal video radiometer (TVR)
- Urban heat island