@inproceedings{1ef2ef288e9146e9bd46cee99003f163,

title = "Sparks: Succinct parallelizable arguments of knowledge",

abstract = "We introduce the notion of a Succinct Parallelizable Argument of Knowledge (SPARK). This is an argument system with the following three properties for computing and proving a time T (non-deterministic) computation:The prover{\textquoteright}s (parallel) running time is T + polylog T. (In other words, the prover{\textquoteright}s running time is essentially T for large computation times!)The prover uses at most T processors.The communication complexity and verifier complexity are both polylogT. While the third property is standard in succinct arguments, the combination of all three is desirable as it gives a way to leverage moderate parallelism in favor of near-optimal running time. We emphasize that even a factor two overhead in the prover{\textquoteright}s parallel running time is not allowed. Our main results are the following, all for non-deterministic polynomial-time RAM computation. We construct (1) an (interactive) SPARK based solely on the existence of collision-resistant hash functions, and (2) a non-interactive SPARK based on any collision-resistant hash function and any SNARK with quasi-linear overhead (as satisfied by recent SNARK constructions).",

author = "Naomi Ephraim and Cody Freitag and Ilan Komargodski and Rafael Pass",

note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} International Association for Cryptologic Research 2020.; null ; Conference date: 10-05-2020 Through 14-05-2020",

year = "2020",

doi = "10.1007/978-3-030-45721-1_25",

language = "אנגלית",

isbn = "9783030457204",

series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)",

publisher = "Springer",

pages = "707--737",

editor = "Anne Canteaut and Yuval Ishai",

booktitle = "Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020 - 39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Proceedings",

}