TY - GEN

T1 - Sparks

T2 - 39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2020

AU - Ephraim, Naomi

AU - Freitag, Cody

AU - Komargodski, Ilan

AU - Pass, Rafael

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2020.

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - We introduce the notion of a Succinct Parallelizable Argument of Knowledge (SPARK). This is an argument system with the following three properties for computing and proving a time T (non-deterministic) computation:The prover’s (parallel) running time is T + polylog T. (In other words, the prover’s running time is essentially T for large computation times!)The prover uses at most T processors.The communication complexity and verifier complexity are both polylogT. While the third property is standard in succinct arguments, the combination of all three is desirable as it gives a way to leverage moderate parallelism in favor of near-optimal running time. We emphasize that even a factor two overhead in the prover’s parallel running time is not allowed. Our main results are the following, all for non-deterministic polynomial-time RAM computation. We construct (1) an (interactive) SPARK based solely on the existence of collision-resistant hash functions, and (2) a non-interactive SPARK based on any collision-resistant hash function and any SNARK with quasi-linear overhead (as satisfied by recent SNARK constructions).

AB - We introduce the notion of a Succinct Parallelizable Argument of Knowledge (SPARK). This is an argument system with the following three properties for computing and proving a time T (non-deterministic) computation:The prover’s (parallel) running time is T + polylog T. (In other words, the prover’s running time is essentially T for large computation times!)The prover uses at most T processors.The communication complexity and verifier complexity are both polylogT. While the third property is standard in succinct arguments, the combination of all three is desirable as it gives a way to leverage moderate parallelism in favor of near-optimal running time. We emphasize that even a factor two overhead in the prover’s parallel running time is not allowed. Our main results are the following, all for non-deterministic polynomial-time RAM computation. We construct (1) an (interactive) SPARK based solely on the existence of collision-resistant hash functions, and (2) a non-interactive SPARK based on any collision-resistant hash function and any SNARK with quasi-linear overhead (as satisfied by recent SNARK constructions).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85090004679&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-030-45721-1_25

DO - 10.1007/978-3-030-45721-1_25

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AN - SCOPUS:85090004679

SN - 9783030457204

T3 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)

SP - 707

EP - 737

BT - Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2020 - 39th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Proceedings

A2 - Canteaut, Anne

A2 - Ishai, Yuval

PB - Springer

Y2 - 10 May 2020 through 14 May 2020

ER -