Some Observations on Ahriman and his Miscreation in the Bundahišn

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The Bundahišn (Primal Creation) is one of the most important surviving Zoroastrian works in Pahlavi Middle Persian. In this book, the evil spirit Ahriman and his demons play a crucial role in the cosmogonic drama from creation until the end of times, according to the well-known Zoroastrian dualistic system. This article describes the forms and the effects of the onslaught of Ahriman and his evil creatures, and how Zoroastrians explained the nature and the presence of evil and its real influence on the good creation and creatures of Ohrmazd as found in the Bundahišn.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-110
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Persianate Studies
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2022


  • Bundahišn
  • Middle Persian
  • Pahlavi literature
  • Zoroastrianism
  • cosmogony
  • creation
  • dualism
  • evil


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