Objective: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction has been reported to occur early in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The study aim was to search for biomarkers of subclinical myocardial dysfunction which may correlate with disease activity in SLE patients. Methods: This is a prospective, controlled, cross-sectional study of 57 consecutive patients with SLE and 18 controls. Serum samples were obtained to determine serum soluble ST2 (sST2), CXCL-10 and high-sensitivity troponin (hs-troponin) levels. All participants underwent an echocardiographic tissue Doppler study. Results: sST2, CXCL-10 and hs-troponin levels were higher in patients with higher SLE disease activity (SLEDAI). sST2 and CXCL-10 levels were higher in patients with more disease damage as measured by the SLE damage index. Measures of diastolic dysfunction, as assessed by echocardiographic tissue Doppler negatively correlated with log CXCL-10: including E/A; E/e′lateral and E/e′septal, while E/e′ positively correlated with CXCL-10. Diastolic dysfunction parameters also correlated with log sST2 levels, a negative correlation was seen with E/e′lateral and a positive correlation was seen with E/e′. Systolic dysfunction parameters positively correlated with hs-troponin: LVED, LVES, IVS, LVMASS and LVMASS index. In a multivariate analysis, sST2 and CXCL-10 were found to be significantly different in SLE vs. healthy controls, independent of each other and independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Soluble ST2 and CXCL-10 are markers of disease activity and accrued damage in SLE and may serve as sensitive biomarkers for detection of subclinical diastolic dysfunction, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
- myocardial dysfunction