Sodium NMR/MRI for anisotropic systems

U. Eliav*, G. Navon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Sodium (23Na) plays a central role in many physiological processes, and its high NMR sensitivity makes it an attractive nucleus for biomedical NMR and MRI research. Many biological tissues contain structures such as fibers and membranes that impose anisotropic translational and rotational motions on the sodium ions. Translational motion can be studied by diffusion measurements. Anisotropic rotational motion results in non-vanishing quadrupolar interaction that it is best studied by exploiting multiple quantum coherences for 23Na NMR spectroscopy and MRI. The current review covers the application of the various NMR techniques to the study of 23Na in anisotropic compartments in cartilage, tendon, intervertebral discs, red blood cells, nervous system and muscles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-152
Number of pages9
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2016


  • Brain
  • Cartilage
  • Double quantum filter
  • Intervertebral disc
  • Optic nerve
  • Red blood cells
  • Tendon
  • Triple quantum filter


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