Smart cities: Distributed intelligence or central planning?

Hermann Haken*, Juval Portugali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


We discuss various aspects of the application of AI/IT to cities, based on Portugali’s concept of self-organizing cities, Haken’s Synergetics as theory of self-organizing complex systems, and in particular on the Haken and Portugali study of the interplay between Shannon information and pragmatic/semantic information in cognition. In terms of allometry, it is shown that increasing automatization of a city may lead even to an increase of load on humans and in extreme cases to a system’s instability.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Optimization and Its Applications
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages22
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameSpringer Optimization and Its Applications
ISSN (Print)1931-6828
ISSN (Electronic)1931-6836


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