Skew-symmetric vortices and solitons in crossed-lattice potentials

Thawatchai Mayteevarunyoo, Boris A. Malomed

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We introduce a wave-propagation model for a pair of linearly coupled two-dimensional (2D) cores with intrinsic cubic nonlinearity - self-focusing (attractive) or self-defocusing (repulsive). Each core carries a periodic potential corresponding to a 1D lattice, the two lattices being mutually perpendicular. Localized states in the model are classified according to their skew-symmetry or skew-antisymmetry, that combine the interchange of the cores and the rotation of coordinates by 90°. Such a setting would be difficult to implement in ordinary optics, but it has a straightforward realization in terms of atom-wave optics, using a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to a pair of tunnel-coupled parallel 'pancake-shaped' traps, which are equipped with crossed 1D optical lattices (an example of a greater versatility of matter-wave optics, as compared to the optics of photons). For the attractive nonlinearity in both cores, symmetry-breaking bifurcations are found, with the help of the variational approximation and, chiefly, by means of numerical methods, in families of skew-symmetric fundamental solitons, dipoles, and vortices. A new species of topologically organized states, which is specific to the dual-core system with crossed 1D lattices, is reported in the form of crosses. They are built as crossed dipole pairs in the two cores, with a phase shift of π/2. Actually, the crosses represent another species of skew-symmetric vortices, different from the ordinary ones. All topologically structured modes in the system exist in pairs: straight and diagonal dipoles, rhombus-and square-shaped vortices (alias on-and off-site ones), and straight and oblique crosses. A noteworthy dynamical feature is the fact that the instability which breaks the skew-symmetry of square-and rhombus-shaped vortices does not lead to their transformation into stable asymmetric counterparts, even though such states are found as stationary solutions. Actually, unstable squares and rhombuses always transform themselves, respectively, into stable crosses of the oblique and straight types. Fundamental solitons and vortices, which do not feature the symmetry-breaking instability, are also found in the first bandgap of the repulsive system, and in the semi-infinite gap of the mixed attractive-repulsive model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number094015
JournalJournal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2009


  • Gap solitons
  • Gross-Pitaevskii equation
  • Linear coupling
  • Optical lattice
  • Spontaneous symmetry breaking
  • Supercritical bifurcation
  • Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion
  • Variational approximation


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