Single-molecule approaches for DNA damage detection and repair: A focus on Repair Assisted Damage Detection (RADD)

Tahir Detinis Zur, Jasline Deek, Yuval Ebenstein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The human genome is continually exposed to various stressors, which can result in DNA damage, mutations, and diseases. Among the different types of DNA damage, single-strand lesions are commonly induced by external stressors and metabolic processes. Accurate detection and quantification of DNA damage are crucial for understanding repair mechanisms, assessing environmental impacts, and evaluating response to therapy. However, traditional techniques have limitations in sensitivity and the ability to detect multiple types of damage. In recent years, single-molecule fluorescence approaches have emerged as powerful tools for precisely localizing and quantifying DNA damage. Repair Assisted Damage Detection (RADD) is a single-molecule technique that employs specific repair enzymes to excise damaged bases and incorporates fluorescently labeled nucleotides to visualize the damage. This technique provides valuable insights into repair efficiency and sequence-specific damage. In this review, we discuss the principles and applications of RADD assays, highlighting their potential for enhancing our understanding of DNA damage and repair processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103533
JournalDNA Repair
StatePublished - Sep 2023


FundersFunder number
National Institutes of Health
National Human Genome Research InstituteR01HG009190
European Research Council817811
Israel Science Foundation771/21


    • DNA damage
    • DNA repair
    • Damage quantification
    • Fluorescence microscopy
    • Optical genomic mapping
    • Repair Assisted Damage Detection (RADD)
    • Repair dynamics
    • Repair enzymes
    • Single-molecule
    • Single-strand DNA damage


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