Simulation-based policy evaluation of monetary car driving disincentives in Jerusalem

Golan Ben-Dor*, Aleksey Ogulenko, Ido Klein, Eran Ben-Elia, Itzhak Benenson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The effectiveness of congestion charges and parking prices as monetary disincentives to reduce car traffic and alleviate congestion in highly demanded urban areas is investigated, focusing on Jerusalem's diverse and congested city center. A tailored MATSim agent-based simulation model was used to examine various payment scenarios and assess the congestion level impacts of entry charges to the city center. Entry charges directly influence the number of vehicles entering the area; parking prices mostly the dwell time. Implementing a moderate daily payment of €10, either as a combined charge or separately, resulted in a substantial 25% reduction in congestion and potentially a reduction of 7.5% to 30% of emissions in the city center. Parking pricing advantages are augmented as the charged area expands. Strategic implementation of these monetary tools can effectively allow cities to manage traffic congestion, reduce pollution, and encourage a shift to sustainable transportation modes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104061
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
StatePublished - May 2024


FundersFunder number
Nir Sharav & Associates
Tel Aviv University
Israeli Smart Transportation Research Center
Ministry of Aliyah and Integration


    • Agent-based model
    • Congestion charges
    • Congestion management
    • Jerusalem
    • MATSim
    • Parking pricing


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