Silicone and Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA)

Yair Levy*, Rotem Baytner-Zamir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


One of the most publically known uses for silicone is as the main component in aesthetic implants, the most popular of which are breast implants, first introduced in the early 1960s. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) is a new syndrome that assembles a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions triggered by an adjuvant stimulus. The possibility of adverse systemic reactions to silicone implants was suggested as early as 1964, when two patients developed connective tissue diseases (CTDs) several years after having breast augmentation surgery. A prominent feature of autoimmunity is the presence of autoantibodies. Systemic sclerosis (SSc), also known as scleroderma, is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Future studies that generate long-term data on a wider scale and with end-points that include specific autoimmune diseases and non-defined autoimmune phenomena should help clarify the presumed association between silicone and autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVaccines and Autoimmunity
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781118663721
ISBN (Print)9781118663431
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)
  • Connective tissue diseases (CTDs)
  • Nondefined autoimmune phenomena
  • Scleroderma
  • Silicone


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