High-resolution technologies have clarified some of the principles underlying cellular actions. However, understanding how cells receive, communicate, and respond to signals is still challenging. Questions include how efficient regulation of assemblies, which execute cell actions at the nanoscales, transmits productively at micrometer scales, especially considering the crowded environment, and how the cell organization makes it happen. Here, we describe how cells can navigate long-range diffusion-controlled signaling via association/dissociation of spatially proximal entities. Dynamic clusters can span the cell, engaging in most signaling steps. Effective local concentration, allostery, scaffolding, affinities, and the chemical and mechanical properties of the macromolecules and the environment play key roles. Signaling strength and duration matter, for example, deciding if a mutation promotes cancer or developmental syndromes.