Background and purpose: Despite the increasing number of reports on the spectrum of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 (neuro-COVID), few studies have assessed short- and long-term outcome of the disease. Methods: This is a cohort study enrolling adult patients with neuro-COVID seen in neurological consultation. Data were collected prospectively or retrospectively in the European Academy of Neurology NEuro-covid ReGistrY ((ENERGY). The outcome at discharge was measured using the modified Rankin Scale and defined as ‘stable/improved’ if the modified Rankin Scale score was equal to or lower than the pre-morbid score, ‘worse’ if the score was higher than the pre-morbid score. Status at 6 months was also recorded. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed as predictors of outcome at discharge and 6 months. Results: From July 2020 to March 2021, 971 patients from 19 countries were included. 810 (83.4%) were hospitalized. 432 (53.3%) were discharged with worse functional status. Older age, stupor/coma, stroke and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were predictors of worse outcome at discharge. 132 (16.3%) died in hospital. Older age, cancer, cardiovascular complications, refractory shock, stupor/coma and ICU admission were associated with death. 262 were followed for 6 months. Acute stroke or ataxia, ICU admission and degree of functional impairment at discharge were predictors of worse outcome. 65/221 hospitalized patients (29.4%) and 10/32 non-hospitalized patients (24.4%) experienced persisting neurological symptoms/signs. 10/262 patients (3.8%) developed new neurological complaints during the 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Neuro-COVID is a severe disease associated with worse functional status at discharge, particularly in older subjects and those with comorbidities and acute complications of infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1663-1684
Number of pages22
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


FundersFunder number
American ALS Association
Boehringer Ingelheim
Ministero della Salute
European Academy of Neurology
scientific panel for epilepsy
Österreichische Gesellschaft für Epileptologie


    • COVID-19
    • SARS-CoV-2
    • neurological disorders
    • outcome
    • predictors


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