Shading on photovoltaic collectors on rooftops

Avi Aronescu, Joseph Appelbaum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems in urban environments play an important role in solar electric energy generation. Shading on PV collectors, by self-shading, walls and fences on rooftops, affect negatively the output energy of the PV systems. Increasing the distance between the collector rows, and between the walls and fences near to the collectors, may minimize the shading losses. Practically, this option is usually limited, especially on rooftops. Rooftops may be of different types: horizontal, inclined, and saw-tooth, and may have obscuring structures like walls and fences. The distance between the shading objects and the PV collector rows determine the loss of energy due to shading. The study provides the PV system designer with mathematical expressions for distances from obscuring objects for the deployment of PV systems on rooftops. The optimal inclination and azimuths angles of a PV system on a triangular sloped rooftop are also illustrated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2977
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • PV on rooftops
  • Row distance
  • Shading by walls and fences
  • Shading losses


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