Background Young women are usually protected against coronary artery disease due to hormonal and risk-factor profile. Previous studies have suggested poorer outcome in women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome as compared with men. However, when adjusted for age and other risk factors, this difference does not remain significant. We compared the risk profile and outcome between young (≤55 years) women and men admitted with acute coronary syndrome. Methods We analyzed clinical characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of men and women ≤55 years of age enrolled in the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys between 2000 and 2013. Results Among 11,536 patients enrolled, 3949 (34%) were ≤55 years old (407 women, 3542 men). Women were slightly older (48.9 ± 5.7 vs 48.3 ± 5.5, P =.007) and suffered more from diabetes (34% vs 24%) and hypertension (47% vs 37%, P <.001 for both). Rates of prior myocardial infarction were high in both sexes (18% vs 21%). Women presented less often with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (50% vs 57%, P =.007) and with typical chest pain (73% vs 80%, P =.004), and had higher rates of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score ≥140 (19% vs 12%, P =.007). After adjustment for GRACE score, diabetes, and enrollment year, women had a lower likelihood to undergo coronary angiography during hospitalization (odds ratio 0.6, P =.007). Female sex was independently associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-14.0), 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.31-3.36), and 5-year mortality (HR 1.96; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8). Conclusions Young women admitted with acute coronary syndrome are a unique high-risk group that presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Women receive less invasive therapy during hospitalization and have worse in-hospital and long-term outcomes.
- Acute coronary syndrome