To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection among intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) in Israel, serum samples were collected from 400 asymptomatic individuals attending a methadone clinic in Tel Aviv. Overall 5.5% were HBsAg positive, 2.4% HBeAg positive, 52% anti-HBc positive and 6.6% were positive for anti-HD. Anti-HD was identified in 18% of addicts who were HBsAg positive and in 3% who were HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive. Strong correlation was found between positivity to HBV antibodies and age and duration of drug use. History of jaundice correlated more strongly with anti-HD positivity than with presence of antibodies to HBV. We conclude that Israeli IVDA are less exposed to HBV and HDV infection than their North American and European counterparts.