Secure Codes with List Decoding

Yujie Gu, Ilya Vorobyev, Ying Miao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper we consider combinatorial secure codes in traitor tracing for protecting copyright of multimedia content. First, we introduce a new notion of secure codes with list decoding (SCLDs) for collusion-resistant multimedia fingerprinting, which includes many existing types of fingerprinting codes as special cases. Next, we build efficient identifying algorithms for SCLDs with complete traceability and establish bounds on its largest possible code rate. In comparison with the existing fingerprinting codes, it is shown that SCLDs have not only much more efficient traceability than separable codes but also a much larger code rate than frameproof codes. As a byproduct, new bounds on the largest code rate of binary separable codes are established as well. Furthermore, a two-stage dynamic traitor tracing framework is proposed for multimedia fingerprinting in the dynamic scenario, which could not only efficiently achieve the complete traceability but also provide a much larger capacity than the static scenario.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • binary code
  • code rate
  • Codes
  • copyright protection
  • Data security
  • Decoding
  • dynamic traitor tracing
  • Fingerprint recognition
  • Heuristic algorithms
  • list decoding
  • Modulation
  • Secure code
  • Streaming media


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