Secondary Traumatization Among Wives of Posttraumatic Combat Veterans: A Family Typology

Mark Waysman*, Mario Mikulincer, Zahava Solomon, Matisyohu Weisenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the relationship between family environment and the psychosocial adjustment of wives of Israeli combat stress reaction (CSR; n = 127) and non-CSR (n = 85) veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. Wives from conflict-oriented families were found to display the highest levels of psychological and behavioral problems, followed by wives from rigid-moral and midrange families. The healthiest wives in this sample came from expressive families. Results indicate that family environment has a similar effect on all wives, irrespective of whether or not the husband had suffered a wartime stress reaction. Findings show, however, that wives of traumatized veterans have to contend far more often than other wives with conflict and rigidity in family functioning, whereas wives of nontraumatized veterans tend to benefit from an expressive family environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-118
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Family Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 1993
Externally publishedYes


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