Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT): Report of 25 cases of a distinctive benign splenic lesion

Maritza Martel*, Wah Cheuk, Luciano Lombardi, Beatriz Lifschitz-Mercer, John K.C. Chan, Juan Rosai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Twenty-five cases of a morphologically distinctive vascular lesion of the spleen are described. The patients were 17 women and 8 men, ranging in age from 22 to 74 years (mean, 48.4 years; median, 56 years). The most common presentations were incidental finding of an asymptomatic splenic mass (13 patients), abdominal pain or discomfort (6 patients), and splenomegaly (4 patients). None of the patients had evidence of recurrent disease after splenectomy. The splenic lesion was solitary, measuring 3 to 17 cm, and sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma. The cut surface revealed a mass of coalescing red-brown nodules embedded in a dense fibrous stroma. All cases showed a remarkably consistent multinodular appearance at low-power examination. The individual nodules had an angiomatoid appearance, in the sense that they were composed of slit-like, round or irregular-shaped vascular spaces lined by plump endothelial cells and interspersed by a population of spindly or ovoid cells. Some of the nodules (particularly the smaller ones) were surrounded by concentric rings of collagen fibers. Numerous red blood cells were present, as well as scattered inflammatory cells. Nuclear atypia was minimal, mitotic figures were extremely rare, and necrosis was consistently absent. The internodular stroma consisted of variably myxoid to dense fibrous tissue with scattered plump myofibroblasts, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and siderophages. Immunostaining revealed 3 distinct types of vessels in the angiomatoid nodules: CD34+/CD8-/CD31+ capillaries, CD34-/CD8+/CD31+ sinusoids, and CD34-/CD8-/CD31+ small veins, recapitulating the composition of the normal splenic red pulp. These features are therefore different from those of littoral cell angioma, conventional hemangioma, and hemangioendothelioma of the spleen. We interpret these angiomatoid nodules as altered red pulp tissue that had been entrapped by a nonneoplastic stromal proliferative process. The characteristic morphologic appearance, immunophenotype, and benign clinical course suggest that this is a distinctive nonneoplastic vascular lesion of the spleen that we propose to designate as sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1268-1279
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiomatoid nodule
  • Hamartoma
  • Hemangioma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor
  • Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation
  • Spleen


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