School counsellors' involvement in the process of inclusion in Israel

Rachel Erhard*, Tami Umanksy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of the research was to identify variables affecting the attitudes and involvement of school counsellors in the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular classrooms. The sample included 220 primary and middle school counsellors in Israel. Two specially constructed questionnaires (i.e., the Involvement in Inclusion Questionnaire and the Personal and Institutional Characteristics Questionnaire) and an adaptation of the Shechtman, Reiter, and Schanin (1993) Attitude Questionnaire were employed in the research. The findings indicated that counsellors have positive attitudes towards inclusion and allocated about 36% of their time to inclusion activities. Special education training and attitudes toward inclusion were the variables that explained the greatest amount of variance in the counsellors' involvement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-194
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Disability, Development and Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2005


  • Attitudes
  • Inclusion
  • Involvement
  • Roles
  • School counsellor


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