The subject of radio wave propagation in tunnels has gathered attention in recent years, mainly regarding the fading phenomena caused by internal reflections. Several methods have been suggested to describe the propagation inside a tunnel. This work is based on the ray tracing approach, which is useful for structures where the dimensions are orders of magnitude larger than the transmission wavelength. Using image theory, we utilized a multi-ray model to reveal non-dimensional parameters, enabling measurements in down-scaled experiments. We present the results of field experiments in a small concrete pedestrian tunnel with smooth walls for radio frequencies (RF) of 1, 2.4, and 10 GHz, as well as in a down-scaled model, for which millimeter waves (MMWs) were used, to demonstrate the roles of the frequency, polarization, tunnel dimensions, and dielectric properties on the wave propagation. The ray tracing method correlated well with the experimental results measured in the tunnel as well as in a scale model.
- Ray tracing
- Scale model